Even though we do not know how aphthous ulcers develop, a number of predisposing factors have been identified: iron, folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency as well as mucosal injuries can lead to aphthous ulcers. Patients are advised as a prophylactic measure to avoid firm, acidic and salty foods, alcohol and carbonated beverages. According to the authors, most cases should be treated with a topical agent, usually an ointment. Only in severe forms of the disease is the use of systemic medications necessary.
Source: Deutsches Aerzteblatt International
Full bibliographic information:
Altenburg A, El-Haj N, Micheli C, Puttkammer M, Abdel-Naser MB, Zouboulis CC: The treatment of chronic recurrent oral aphthous ulcers. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2014; 111: 665–73.