Recent guidance from the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition and WHO advise intake of free sugars should not exceed 5% of energy intake. Free sugars are those sugars added to food, and those naturally present in honey, syrups, fruit juice and fruit juice concentrate, as defined by the WHO in 2015. There is increasing concern over intake of free sugars, particularly from SSBs, and their link to weight gain and tooth decay in children.
The WAVES study is a cluster randomised obesity prevention intervention trial in 54 primary schools across the West Midlands region of the UK. Baseline information, including dietary intake, were collected from children in 2011–12, when they were aged 5-6 years old. The aim of this study was to identify sources of free sugar intake in this sample of children.
Dietary intake was assessed using the Child and Diet Evaluation Tool (CADET) which is a checklist of all foods and drinks consumed over 24 hours, and derives nutrient data from McCance and Widdowson’s database (2015). The authors were then able to work out how much free sugar was in each of the foods the children were consuming.
The researchers found that mean daily intake of free sugar in a sample of 1085 children was 74.6g, representing 17.4% of energy intake. Of the total free sugar consumed, 40% was from SSBs (25% from fizzy drinks, squash and fruit drinks and 15% from fruit juice and smoothies), 10% from chocolate, sweets, toffees and mints’, 8% from ‘cakes, buns and sponge puddings’, and 7% from ‘yoghurt and fromage frais’.
The authors say: “Children’s free sugar intake exceeds amounts recommended in UK guidelines. These findings support public health concern over high intakes of SSBs given their possible contribution to excess weight gain. Evidence supports the recent introduction of the sugar tax introduced by the UK government as one method aiming to reduce purchase and consumption of high sugar products, however we must continue to find ways to support the public to reduce their intake of free sugars. Identifying differences in subgroups from the main WAVES study data, when available, will be important for targeted interventions.”